Understand and use the terms amplitude, frequency, period, speed and wavelength
1. use the expression F = Gm1m2/r2
2. derive and use the expression g = −Gm/r2 for the gravitational field due to a point mass
3. recall similarities and differences between electric and gravitational fields
4. recognize and use the expression relating flux, luminosity and distance F = L/4πd2 and the application to standard candles
5. explain how distances can be determined using trigonometric parallax and by measurements on radiation flux received from objects of known luminosity (standard candles)
6. Recognize and use a simple HertzsprungRussell diagram to relate luminosity and temperature. Use this diagram to explain the life cycle of stars
7. Recognize and use the expression L = σT4 x surface area, (for a sphere L = 4πr2σT4) (StefanBoltzmann law) for black body radiators.
8. recognize and use the expression: λmaxT = 2.898 x 103 m K (Wien’s law) for black body radiators
9. recognize and use the expressions z = Δλ/λ ≈ Δf/f ≈ v/c for a source of electromagnetic radiation moving relative to an observer and v = H0d for objects at cosmological distances
10. be aware of the controversy over the age and ultimate fate of the universe associated with the value of the Hubble Constant and the possible existence of dark matter
11. explain the concept of nuclear binding energy, and recognise and use the expression ΔE = c2Δm and use the non SI atomic mass unit (u) in calculations of nuclear mass (including mass deficit) and energy
12. describe the processes of nuclear fusion and fission
13. explain the mechanism of nuclear fusion and the need for high densities of matter and high temperatures to bring it about and maintain it
14.
Oscillations
1. Recall that the condition for simple harmonic motion is F = –kx, and hence identify situations in which simple harmonic motion will occur Spec119
2. Recognize and use the expressions a = – ω^{2}x, a = –Aω^{2} cos ωt, v = Aω sin ωt, x = Acos ωt and T = 1/f = 2π/ω as applied to a simple harmonic oscillator Spec120.
3. obtain a displacement – time graph for an oscillating object and recognize that the gradient at a point gives the velocity at that point Spec 121 
4. Recall that the total energy of an undammed simple harmonic system remains constant and recognize and use expressions for total energy of an oscillator. Spec122
5. Distinguish between free, damped and forced oscillations. Spec 123
6. Investigate and recall how the amplitude of a forced oscillation changes at and around the natural frequency of a system and describe, qualitatively, how damping affects resonance. Spec124
7. Explain how damping and the plastic deformation of ductile materials reduce the amplitude of oscillation. Spec 125.
Unit 1 Topic 1 Mechanics
Target sheet
I can:
1. Equation of uniformly accelerated motion.
2. Displacement time graph
3. Velocity time graph.
5. Principle of Conservation of Energy.
7. Vector addition
8. Resolving a vector onto Xaxis and Yaxis.
9. Air resistance and solid friction.
10. Static and Kinetic Equilibrium.
11. Coplanar forces.
12. Three Dimensional Forces.
Statement  Spec ref  Comments 
explain what is meant by an electric field and recognise and use the expression electric field strength E = F/Q 
83 

draw and interpret diagrams using lines of force to describe radial and uniform electric fields qualitatively 
84 

use the expression F = kQ_{1}Q_{2}/r^{2}, where k = 1/4πε_{0} and derive and use the expression E = kQ/r^{2} for the electric field due to a point charge 
85 

investigate and recall that applying a potential difference to two parallel plates produces a uniform electric field in the central region between them, and recognise and use the expression E = V/d 
86 

investigate and use the expression C = Q/V 
87 

recognise and use the expression W = ½ QV for the energy stored by a capacitor, derive the expression from the area under a graph of potential difference against charge stored, and derive and use related expressions, for example, W = ½ CV^{2} 
88 

investigate and recall that the growth and decay curves for resistor–capacitor circuits are exponential, and know the significance of the time constant RC 
89 

recognise and use the expression Q = Q_{0} e^{−t/RC}and derive and use related expressions, for exponential discharge in RC circuits, for example, I = I_{0}e^{−t/RC} 
90 

explore and use the terms magnetic flux density B, flux Φ and flux linkage NΦ 
91 

investigate, recognise and use the expression F = BIl sin θ and apply Fleming’s left hand rule to currents 
92 

recognise and use the expression F = Bqv sin θ and apply Fleming’s left hand rule to charges 
93 

investigate and explain qualitatively the factors affecting the emf induced in a coil when there is relative motion between the coil and a permanent magnet and when there is a change of current in a primary coil linked with it 
94 

investigate, recognise and use the expression ε = −d(NΦ)/dt and explain how it is a consequence of Faraday’s and Lenz’s laws 
95 
6. b) The graphs show the sensitivity of a particular brand photographic film and that of a charge coupled device, CCD, to different parts of the e.m spectrum.
The surface temperature of a star can be calculated once the wavelength of the peak of its spectrum (λmax) is known. Use the graphs to explain why photographic film would be less suitable than CCDs for determining (λmax) for a star which radiates mainly in the visible region (400nm700nm) of the e.m spectrum.
6b) (Answer.) The bandwidth of the film is from 350nm to 700nm whereas that of the CCD is from 300nm to 1000nm. The CCD is more suitable because the relative sensitivity of the film is not uniform and ranges from 0.5 to a maximum of 1.0. The CCD is much better in this regard for it is uniform and close to 1 for the entire spectrum.
6c) State what happens to the hydrogen ‘burning’
6c) (Answer) The hydrogen fuses to become Helium and that is more stable. When time will allow the star will be low in fuel and it will expand slightly. This expansion causes the temperature to fall and the star becomes a red giant.
Why is a red giant more luminous than the main sequence star from which it originated, even though its temperature is lower? (1)
The luminosity depends upon the square of the radius and the 4^{th} of the temperature. The red giant expands more hence the radius factor plays a more important role than the temperature factor.
6d). Describe how observations of Cepheid variable stars are used to estimate the distance to nearby galaxies.
A longer time period for oscillation meant an intrinsically brighter star. Astronomers then took this relationship and used it to determine the luminosity of variable stars at much greater distances. From the luminosity, the distance to these stars can be determined using our expression for the radiant energy flux observed here on Earth. Hence the estimate to the distance can be measured.
e) Explain the meaning of the term binary system (1)
It is a star system which is made up of two stars having a common centre.
f) At A C and E the light intensity gets lower due to the fact that shadow of one of the stars falling on the other.
g) The dip at A is much smaller due to the fact that the other star is smaller. Whereas the dip at C is larger because the opposing star is larger.
h) Estimate the orbital period of this binary.
From 2 hours to 24 hours or 22 hours.
Estimate the orbital period of this binary. (1)
i) From B to D: 8 to 19 hours or 11 hours.
tan θ = r/ d.
It is not a suitable method because it uses the parallax method hence it cannot be used for distant stars more than 650 ly.
Describe what happens to a star when it becomes a white dwarf?
Its strong gravitational field outweighs the fusion. And becomes very low luminous star,
b) L = 1
lower left hand corner.
L= 10^{4}
They burn out quickly intense nuclear radiation.
Deneb has greater surface area. The luminosity is much larger,
The nature of particle.
1.Thomson concluded that those cathode rays were made up of particles.
2. Max Planck was trying to find out a model to understand the way in which a black body emits radiation.
3. Black body is perfect emitter and absorber of electromagnetic radiation.
4. He found that this was possible only if he had assumed radiations were emitted in packets.
5. Plank’s idea was not understood until Einstein, 1905 showed that black body radiation could be understood better if it was assumed that the radiation itself was quantised, consisting of particle like packets of energy.
6.Each is referred to as photon.
Ultraviolet catastrophe: Classical physics can predict that black body radiation based on long wavelength but not at short wavelengths, leading a disagreement that physicist calls as U.V catastrophe.
Radiation Flux —Do the worked out example.
Light! Wave or particle
In the end of seventeenth century saw a fierce debate about the nature of light. Newton compared light with a stream of particles and this was accepted for reflection and refraction could be explained using this model. He also argued that if light were waves then it would not form the sharp image of the object. (He did not realise that the light wave were too small!)
No.  Name of scientist  Year  Place  Perspective  Key ideas 
7  Thomas Young  1802  England  Wave theory  His double slit experiment 
8  Leon Foucault  1853  France  Wave theory  His experimental value of speed of light gave a death blow to particle theory for it required the light to travel faster in H_{2}O then in N_{2}. 
9  Albert Einstein  1905  Germany  Particle theory  Photo electric effect. 
The dilemma was recreated and then it was resolved only after Louis de Broglie produced his theory of waveparticle duality. He received the Nobel Prize for the world had accepted his explanation of light as being both particle and wave!
This new discovery gave rise to quantum mechanics.
10  Albert Einstein  1905  Germany  Particle theory  Photo electric effect. 
11  Thomson  England  Particle theory  Cathode rays  
12  Max Plank  1918  Germany  Quantised Radiation  Black Body Radiation 
13  Louis De Broglie  1927  France  Issue resolved  Crystals do show diffraction when illuminated by electrons as confirmed independently by Davisson and Thomson. 
The dilemma was recreated and then it was resolved only after Louis de Broglie produced his theory of waveparticle duality. He received the Nobel Prize for the world had accepted his explanation of light as being both particle and wave!
This new discovery gave rise to quantum mechanics.
T
Weight is the force of attraction due to the Earth pulling us. This is due to gravity. Fortunately, we do not go up. The pull of the earth is always directed to the center of the earth. Our mass , the total quantity of the matter in our body does not change, and there is no specific direction associated with this dimension.
Physical quantities that have both magnitude and direction are known as Vectors. Scalar quantity are those that only have magnitude and no directions.
The Base dimensions in Physics are Lenght, Mass, Time and this is usually taught in grade 7 or 8, later the students learn about Current, Temperature . In chemistry they are taught about mole. Lastly, the sevent base dimension the Candela.